Historic Bridge Rehabilitation Case Studies – A-F

ASB Bridge

  • Location: Kansas City, Missouri
  • Type: Baltimore through truss with additional lower railroad deck connected by hangers with telescoping vertical lift design, 428 foot main span, built 1911 with upper highway deck demolished 1987.
  • Purpose of Rehabilitation: Continued railroad use in original location.
  • Year of Rehabilitation: 1990
  • Cost of Rehabilitation: $14,600,000 ($26,574,904 in 2014 Adjusted For Inflation)
  • Design Firm: In-House Design By MoDOT with railroad interests represented by HNTB.
  • Contractor: Dick Enterprises of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, with steel fabrication subcontracted to Southwest Steel Fabricators
  • Details: At the time of rehabilitation, the approaching roadway for the upper deck had already been removed, never to be rebuilt. As part of this project, the upper deck was removed on the main bridge itself, and the entire remaining bridge was then rehabilitated for railroad use. Work included replacement of sheave girders and counterweights, replacement of two north approach spans, replacement of deteriorated rivets, repairs to the concrete abutments, and the entire superstructure was cleaned and repainted. The paint system was a three coat Valspar Epoxy Mastic system. One of the challenges of this project involved the use of bolts. After being left outside for a time, they developed a very thin film of rust. This was enough to complicate and make more difficult the turn-of-the-nut  method used to properly tighten bolts… a process that requires that the nut and bolt be completely free of rust. The contractor was required to protect the nuts and bolts from the elements as a result. The rehabilitation of the bridge was intended to provide an additional 80 years of service life.
  • View Bridge Documentation (External Link)

asb

Ballard Bridge

  • Location: Seattle, Washington
  • Type: Pratt truss double-leaf trunnion bascule, 292 feet long, built 1916.
  • Purpose of Rehabilitation: Seismic retrofit for continued vehicular use in original location.
  • Year of Rehabilitation: 1994
  • Design Firm: Sverdrup Civil Inc.
  • Details: Less consideration was given to what would happen if an earthquake occured when the bridge was opened, since this was less likely and bascule bridges by design are vulnerable when opened, and this is difficult to correct fully. The trunnion girder was found to be quite vulnerable and to help with this problem the trunnion bearing was partially encased inside the pier pocket to reduce the strain on the actual trunnion girder. During an earthquake, the bridge would be at risk of sliding off of its trunnions, and to address this counterweight restrainers: large plates that engage around the counterweight when the bridge is closed were added as a retrofit. Bracing near the counterweight was strengthened. Post-tension anchor bars were added to the bridge tender house to tie it down to the pier. In addition to the aforementioned seismic retrofits, the bascule deck was replaced, and new railings installed to protect the trusses from impacts.
  • View Bridge Documentation (External Link)

ballard

Belgium Bridge

  • Location: Onondaga County, New York
  • Type: One span rivet-connected Polygonal Warren through truss, 311 span, built 1949.
  • Purpose of Rehabilitation: Relocate and rehabilitate for vehicular use in new location.
  • Year of Rehabilitation: 2005
  • Combined Project Cost For Two Bridges: $23,000,000 ($28,069,068 in 2014 Adjusted For Inflation).
  • Cost of Truss Disassembly, Relocation, Re-erection, and Repainting: $1,572,000 ($1,918,459 in 2014 Adjusted For Inflation).
  • Design Firm: C&S Companies
  • Contractor: Cianbro Construction
  • Details: A creative preservation scenario. A historic one-lane 1914 rivet-connected Parker truss at Plainville, New York was found to be insufficient for the road it carried. At the same time, a historic two-lane 1949 rivet-connected through truss was also found insufficient for the much busier road it carried in Belgium, New York. Rather than demolish both bridges, it was found that the 1949 truss could be rehabilitated to serve the needs of the road at Plainville, and so the bridge was relocated and preserved there. The loss of the 1914 bridge was unfortunate, but this solution turned a potential loss of two historic bridges into a loss of only one. Because of the special Programmatic Agreement for the canal bridges in New York State, this process avoided the need for additional mitigation for adverse effect. It was also economical to relocate the bridge instead of building a new one at Plainville, and so also saved money. To relocate the bridge, the 1949 truss was rolled back off the canal on a track system using an excavator and wire cable. It was then dismantled for restoration in a shop setting before being re-erected in its new location. The flooring system of the truss was replaced, and a selected repairs to the truss were made including replacement of two diagonal members in each truss line. Reassembly of the 500 ton truss in the new location was done on falsework over the waterway.
  • View Bridge Documentation (External Link)

Belgium Bridge

BNSF Railroad Bridge 9.6

  • Location: Portland, Oregon
  • Type: Pin-connected through truss rim-bearing swing bridge with 462 foot swing span, built 1908.
  • Purpose of Rehabilitation: Continued railroad use in original location.
  • Years of Rehabilitation: 1999-2001
  • Cost of Rehabilitation: Approx. $5,000,000 ($7,139,855 in 2014 Adjusted For Inflation)
  • Design Firm: HDR
  • Contractor: Allegheny Construction of Roanoke, Virginia
  • Details: This project to upgrade the systems of this movable bridge and enable it to continue to function reliably were broken into a five year program. Work including replacement of the center bearing pin. The electrical system of the bridge used a voltage that was no longer produced by the power company, so the electrical systems were upgraded. The turning machinery was upgraded. A new end lift control system was installed as well as new span locks. Bridge operation and control systems were upgraded to a computer control system. Both railroad bridges and movable bridges often present challenges to maintain rail and boat traffic, and this bridge was no exception. Construction could not take place during busy periods, and it could only close to navigation for 10 days in March only. Rail closures were also restricted to very small periods of time. The rehabilitation of the bridge has enabled it to continue to carry large numbers of trains while opening frequently for boats as well.
  • View Bridge Documentation (External Link)

bnsf

Bostick Road Bridge

  • Location: Allen County, Indiana
  • Type: 174 foot single span, pin-connected Whipple Through Truss, built 1894
  • Purpose of Rehabilitation: Preservation in original location for pedestrian use (has been bypassed by modern vehicular bridge)
  • Year of Rehabilitation: 2010
  • Cost of Rehabilitation: $1,130,000
  • Design Firm: Butler, Fairman & Seufert
  • Details: Work included replication of original damaged plaque. A new timber deck was installed. A timber railing was added, but original railing was left in place behind. Selected angles on portal and sway bracing were replaced in-kind. American Standard Beam type rolled i-beam floor beams were replaced in-kind.
  • View Bridge Documentation (External Link)

Bostick Road Bridge

Boston Bridge

  • Location: Allegheny County, Pennsylvania
  • Type: Cantilever truss bridge, 420 foot main span, 1182 feet total length, built 1931.
  • Purpose of Rehabilitation: Continued vehicular use in original location.
  • Year of Rehabilitation: 2010-2011
  • Cost of Rehabilitation: $17,347,700.58
  • Design Firm: ms consultants
  • Contractor: Trumbull Corporation
  • Details: This project replaced the deck on the bridge including replacement of steel deck stringers. Existing original sidewalk railings were removed, repaired, and reinstalled on the bridge. The entire bridge was cleaned and repainted. New Jersey barrier on the roadway was replaced with a standard guiderail consisting of two steel tubes on top of concrete parapet. Bridge bearings were replaced, and selected repairs were made to the substructure of the bridge. Some of the gusset plates were removed and replaced. Any rivets replaced during this work were replaced with bolts.
  • View Bridge Documentation (External Link)

bostonbridge

Bridge of Lions

  • Location: St. Johns County, Florida (St. Augustine)
  • Type: 1545 foot deck plate girder bridge including 95 foot deck plate girder bascule span.
  • Purpose of Rehabilitation: Continued vehicular use in original location.
  • Year of Rehabilitation: 2010
  • Cost of Rehabilitation: $20,000,000
  • Design Firm: Reynolds, Smith and Hills / Lichtenstein Consulting Engineers, Inc. (Now Transystems)
  • Details: This is a good example of a compromise project. The girders were retained, but only for visual appearance, with modern steel stringers in between bearing the load today. However, the bridge retains its original appearance to casual viewers. The approach spans were widened. The girders to be reused were moved off the bridge and restored off-site and brought back to the bridge for reinstallation. Light standards and original railings that had been lost years ago were replicated (with minor alterations to meet current standards) and placed on the bridge.
  • View Detailed Report By SRI Foundation For AASHTO
  • View Bridge Documentation (External Link)

Bridge of Lions

Burroughs Street Bridges

  • Location: Kent County, Michigan
  • Type: Two bridges: A two span rivet-connected Warren pony truss, 57 foot spans totaling 120 feet, built 1905, and a one span rivet-connected Camelback pony truss, 125 feet long, built 1925.
  • Purpose of Rehabilitation: Relocate and reuse 1905 Burroughs Street Bridge on rail-trail in Portland, Michigan and relocate and restore 1925 bridge being replaced in Wayne County to Burroughs Street to serve vehicular traffic.
  • Year of Rehabilitation: 1995
  • Design Firm: 1925 Bridge: Schiffer Group 1905 Bridge: HH Engineering
  • Details: A unique preservation story. A two lane historic truss bridge being replaced on a busy road in Wayne County was relocated and reused for vehicular traffic on Burroughs Street in Kent County. It replaced an existing older one lane truss bridge. This one-lane truss bridge was in turn relocated to Portland, MI where it was reused as a pedestrian bridge for the city’s trail system.
  • Bridge Documentation: 1925 Bridge, 1905 Bridge (External Links)

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Carroll Street Bridge

  • Location: New York, New York
  • Type: One span metal through girder retractile bridge, 170 feet long, built 1889.
  • Purpose of Rehabilitation: Continued vehicular use in original location.
  • Year of Rehabilitation: 1989 (Additional Repairs in 2013)
  • Cost of 1989 Rehabilitation: $1,500,000 ($2,877,822 in 2014 Adjusted For Inflation)
  • Design Firm: None, In-House Design By VDOT
  • Contractor: In-House by city forces
  • Details: Timber piles that supported the rails were replaced with concrete ones to prevent settling that was occurring with the timber piles. The bridge had not operated since 1985, and vandals had subsequently stolen all the operating equipment out of the bridge tender house. Additionally, the bridge tender house had been damaged by trucks and was severely deteriorated, so it was replaced, however the original bricks were reused on the new building. Floor beams and deck stringers were replaced, as was the lattice stiffening frame between the stay posts. New rails were installed. The trucks that contain the wheels for the bridge were refurbished in a shop setting. The bridge was also realigned to correct misalignment caused by barge accidents. Most work was completed in-house by city forces. It should be noted that more recently, in 2013, the bridge was again repaired, but these repairs were not as extensive and were partly to address damage caused by the storm that was Hurricane Sandy which flooded the bridge including the bridge tender house.
  • View Bridge Documentation (External Link)

Carroll Street Bridge

Carrollton Bridge

  • Location: Carroll County, Indiana
  • Type: Six span 615 foot closed spandrel reinforced concrete arch bridge, built 1927.
  • Purpose of Rehabilitation: Continued vehicular use in original location.
  • Year of Rehabilitation: 2006
  • Cost of Rehabilitation: $1,916,750
  • Design Firm: Butler, Fairman, & Seufert, Inc.
  • Contractor: Wirtz and Yates, of Kentland, Indiana
  • Details: Bridge was rehabilitated extensively. Project widened the bridge roadway by building longer deck cantilevers from the arches, and adding new historic-style “Texas” railing that was modified to more closely match the style of the original bridge railing. Prior to rehab, bridge was in very poor condition with widespread delamination.
  • View Detailed Report By SRI Foundation For AASHTO
  • View Bridge Documentation (External Link)

Carrollton Bridge

Chambers Covered Railroad Bridge

  • Location: Rockbridge County, Virginia
  • Type: One span covered wooden Howe through truss, 85 foot span, built 1925.
  • Purpose of Rehabilitation: Restoration and conversion of abandoned railroad bridge and roadway for pedestrian use in original location.
  • Year of Rehabilitation: 2012
  • Cost of Rehabilitation: $1,451,370 plus additional funds.
  • Design Firm: OBEC Consulting Engineers
  • Details: Bridge had sat abandoned for 60 years and had severe deterioration. Prior to rehabilitation winds almost destroyed the remaining structure. Bridge was stabilized with bracing and dismantled piece by piece over the waterway. All original metal hardware was repainted and reused. 25% of the original wood was resawn and reused in the reconstructed bridge.
  • View Bridge Documentation (External Link)

Chambers Covered Bridge

Checkered House Bridge

  • Location: Chittenden County, Vermont
  • Type: One span rivet-connected Pennsylvania through truss, 350 foot span, built 1929.
  • Purpose of Rehabilitation: Continued vehicular use in original location.
  • Year of Rehabilitation: 2011-2013
  • Cost of Rehabilitation: $13,900,000
  • Design/Build Firm: Harrison and Burrowes, Glenmont, N.Y.
  • Structural Engineering Firm: Finley Engineering Group
  • Steel Fabricator: STS Steel, Inc.
  • Details: An extremely rare example of a rehab project where a through truss was widened, plus this was the largest truss bridge known to have been widened in this manner. Challenges with widening a truss bridge include the increased dead load that the trusses will need to handle, and with through trusses, it requires extensive alteration of the overhead bracing. This project approached these problems nicely. The original bracing remains and retains its original design and appearance, with new bracing added beside it. The new bracing is of similar style, so it blends nicely, yet it also makes it clear to observant visitors that the bridge was widened, visually telling visitors the unique story of this bridge’s rehab. Bridge was widened by 12.5 feet. Original roadway was 20 feet.
  • Detailed article about rehab from Modern Steel Construction
  • View Bridge Documentation (External Link)

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Dorset Avenue Bridge

  • Location: Ventnor City, Atlantic County, New Jersey
  • Type: Deck plate girder double-leaf under-deck counterweight Strauss bascule bridge, bascule span length of 79 feet, built 1929.
  • Purpose of Rehabilitation: Continued vehicular use in original location.
  • Year of Rehabilitation: 1994
  • Design Firm: Lichtenstein Consulting Engineers, Inc. (Now Transystems)
  • Contractor: Cornell and Company of Westbury, New Jersey
  • Details: The mechanical and electrical systems were completely replaced during this project, partly due to the exposed gears and motors being submerged on occasion. Concrete counterweights and counterweight pits were repaired. The original system of one motor per leaf was replaced with a four motor system. New electrical and mechanical equipment was located higher whenever possible to minimize chance of water damage. The counterweight trunnions were in bad condition and were replaced, while the main trunnions were in good condition. The steel superstructure needed to be cleaned and repainted, but no major repairs were needed. The bridges four bridge tender houses were rehabilitated, and one was converted into a comfort station for the bridge tender, another serves as the actual control room for the bridge tender, and the remaining two towers house the operating equipment. A new timber deck sidewalk replaced the old one.
  • View Bridge Documentation (External Link)

Dorset Avenue Bridge

East Delhi Road Bridge

  • Location: Washtenaw County, Michigan
  • Type: One span pin-connected Pratt through truss, 109 feet length, built 1883.
  • Purpose of Rehabilitation: Continued vehicular use in original location.
  • Year of Rehabilitation: 2008
  • Cost of Rehabilitation: $1,200,000 plus $60,000 for preliminary design, and $120,000 for materials testing, inspections, and fees.
  • Design Firm: HH Engineering
  • Details: Extremely strong community support for this bridge. Locals agreed to cover the cost of bridge maintenance with a special assessment tax. Actual rehab was funded through a matching grant, where the state paid 95% of the costs, with the remaining 5% covered by the local agency, with additional funds from other local sources including the Citizens for the East Delhi Bridge Conservancy. Noteworthy example of a bridge rehab that included installation of a stop light signal to control the flow of two-way traffic over the one-lane bridge.
  • View A Brochure About This Rehab From The County
  • View Bridge Documentation (External Link)East Delhi Road Bride

Fairview-Snodgrass Road Bridge

  • Location: Miami County, Ohio
  • Type: 69 foot single span, pin-connected Pratt Pony Truss. Built 1913.
  • Purpose of Rehabilitation: Relocation and reuse as a pedestrian bridge.
  • Year of Rehabilitation: 2011
  • Details: This project relocated the historic bridge to Piqua, Ohio on a pedestrian trail. This relocation project preserved a historic bridge in a new location, while also allowing the project to be completed with No Adverse Effect under Section 106, and avoided the need for Section 4(f).
  • View Bridge Documentation (External Link)

Fairview-Snodgrass Road Bridge