Historic Bridge Rehabilitation Case Studies G-R

Gay Street Bridge

  • Location: Knoxville, Tennessee
  • Type: Five span pin-connected cantilever deck truss, with 252 foot main spans totaling 1,512 feet, built 1897.
  • Purpose of Rehabilitation: Continued vehicular use in original location.
  • Year of Rehabilitation: 2003
  • Cost of Rehabilitation: $15,400,000 ($19,911,195 in 2014 Adjusted For Inflation)
  • Design Firm: Lichtenstein Consulting Engineers (Today Owned By Transystems)
  • Contractor: Ray Bell Contractors (Today Bell and Associates)
  • Details: A special process of using of temporary structural members and rods, pins were bypassed to allow for replacement of plates at the connection points. Project replaced deck stringers, repaired floor beams, replaced sidewalk cantilever brackets. Deck was replaced with a lightweight concrete deck, which by reducing the dead load on the bridge allowed for an increase in the allowable live load.
  • View Bridge Documentation (External Link)

Gay Street Bridge

George Street Bridge

  • Location: Dearborn County, Indiana
  • Type: One span pin-connected Whipple through truss, 200 Foot span and 254 Feet total length, built 1887.
  • Purpose of Rehabilitation: Continued vehicular use in original location.
  • Year of Rehabilitation: 2010
  • Cost of Rehabilitation: $789,764.00
  • Design Firm: J. A. Barker Engineering
  • Contractor: CLR Inc.
  • Details: This project represented a continuing commitment to the preservation of this bridge as this bridge had been rehabilitated previously in 1987. J. A. Barker Engineering who had designed a previous rehab for this bridge and had detailed records of the bridge and its rehab history also designed this rehab project. This particular project addressed several issues including deteriorated pin plates, loose pin nuts, and pack rust on the top chord cover plate. The sidewalk was also replaced on the bridge. Repairs were made to the portal bracing including the restoration of the damaged and deteriorated builder plaque. Broken welds on the deck were repaired. Finally, the bridge was cleaned and repainted. Hot metal riveting was used during this rehab project with several suggested individuals to contact to have the work performed included in the plan sheets. James Barker of J. A. Barker engineer indicated that the trusses themselves are capable of handling more than 20 tons, but the current flooring system was designed for 20 tons. He recommended a posted weight limit of 15 tons, which would keep the fatigue stress at a minimal level, which combined with maintenance, could allow the bridge to enjoy a service life of “a century of two.”
  • View Bridge Documentation (External Link)

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Goshen Bridge

  • Location: Rockbridge County, Virginia
  • Type: Two span pin-connected Pratt through truss, 139 foot and 121 foot span totaling 261 feet, built 1890.
  • Purpose of Rehabilitation: Continued vehicular use in original location.
  • Year of Rehabilitation: 2002
  • Cost of Rehabilitation: $2,200,000 ($2,871,140.63 in 2014 Adjusted For Inflation)
  • Design Firm: None, In-House Design By VDOT
  • Contractor: Allegheny Construction of Roanoke, Virginia
  • Details: A somewhat unusual project, this bridge was extensively rehabilitated. For rehabilitation, the bridge was dismantled and restored off-site. An unusually large amount of original materials were replaced: over 100 original parts of the bridge were replaced including endposts, hip verticals, upper chord members, counters, and pins, as well as the floor beams, stringers, and deck. Bridge was galvanized following rehabilitation. Cost was more than estimate for replacing the bridge.
  • View Detailed Report By SRI Foundation For AASHTO
  • View Bridge Documentation (External Link)

Goshen Bridge

Grantsville Bridge

  • Location: Garrett County, Maryland
  • Type: 1 span rivet-connected Pratt through truss, 137 foot length, built 1932.
  • Purpose of Rehabilitation: Continued vehicular use in original location.
  • Year of Rehabilitation: 2008
  • Cost of Rehabilitation: $2,500,000
  • Design Firm: Johnson, Mirmiran and Thompson
  • Contractor: Concrete General, Inc.
  • Details: Project scope included replacing the concrete deck, repair of vertical members, replacement of several diagonal members, replacement of some deck stringers, cleaning and repainting bridge, and minor abutment repairs. The bridge was closed during the project, and the detour was on nearby I-68. However, the nearby historic Casselman Stone Arch Bridge was also made available for the Amish and non-motorized traffic to use since they could not use the Interstate highway. A special shield and splash guard was installed as part of the new guardrail system, to prevent water and corrosive winter deicing salt from reaching the trusses where it can cause damage.
  • View Detailed Report By SRI Foundation For AASHTO
  • View Bridge Documentation (External Link)

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Hadley Bridge

  • Location: Saratoga County, New York
  • Type: Two span pin-connected Lenticular truss, larger span of 136 foot and 180 feet total length built 1885.
  • Purpose of Rehabilitation: Continued vehicular use in original location including HS20-44 Truck Loads.
  • Year of Rehabilitation: 2005-2006
  • Cost of Rehabilitation: $1,178,956.00 ($1,438,791.14 in 2014 Adjusted For Inflation)
  • Design Firm: Ryan Biggs
  • Contractor: D. A. Collins Construction Company of Mechanicville, New York
  • Details: A good example of compromise in preservation solutions, this bridge’s trusses were turned into non-functional decorations with modern steel stringers carrying the load of traffic, with the trusses attached to these stringers. This alteration allows the bridge to carry truck loads not possible with the truss bridge alone. The trusses themselves maintain their original design and appearance aside from the loss of original built-up floor beams. Interpretive signage was installed as part of the project. Prior to this project, the bridge had been closed since 1983. A Transportation Enhancement Grant assisted with the funding for the project.
  • View Bridge Documentation (External Link)

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Hanover Street Bridge

  • Location: Baltimore, Maryland
  • Type: Pratt deck truss double leaf Rall bascule with concrete cantilever arch approach spans, with 229 foot bascule span and total length 2023 feet, built 1916.
  • Purpose of Rehabilitation: Continued vehicular use in original location.
  • Year of Rehabilitation: 1992
  • Cost of Rehabilitation: $2,912,050 ($4,937,823 in 2014 Adjusted For Inflation)
  • Design Firm: KCI and Lichtenstein Consulting Engineers, Inc. (Now Transystems)
  • Contractor: Cianbro Corporation of Pittsfield, Maine
  • Details: This project to rehabilitate the bascule span of this bridge included replacement of the grid deck and stringers. Floorbeams were strengthened and lateral bracing was replaced. Operating strut pins were replaced, and the differential systems which were an open design were replaced with a enclosed unit. Brakes and locks were replaced. The wheels were removed to facilitate repairs to the wheels and track, requiring a complicated procedure that included temporarily removing a portion of the machinery house and carefully jacking the rollers off of the trunnions.
  • View Bridge Documentation (External Link)

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Harrods Creek Bridge

  • Location: Jefferson County, Kentucky
  • Type: Three span concrete closed spandrel deck arch bridge, 64.0 foot spans totaling about 212 feet, built ca. 1910.
  • Purpose of Rehabilitation: Continued vehicular use in original location.
  • Year of Rehabilitation: 2010
  • Cost of Rehabilitation: $3,400,000
  • Design Firm: Stantec
  • Contractor: MAC Construction and Excavating of New Albany, Indiana
  • Details: This project widened the concrete arch bridge from a one lane bridge to two lanes. To widen the bridge, original railings had to be removed. A load-bearing prestressed concrete box beam system was hidden inside the arches to bear the load of traffic. Prestressed concrete deck panels were placed on the bridge, and they cantilever out beyond the arches to provide the two lane roadway. Railings which replica the original railings were then installed. The arches themselves were repaired as needed. Organized opposition to this project existed during the design phase, but after completion it was perceived as a success.
  • View Bridge Documentation (External Link)

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Hays Street Bridge

  • Location: San Antonio, Texas
  • Type: Two span pin-connected through truss including a Phoenix column Whipple truss span, a Pratt truss span, and a series of concrete approach spans, built 1910 using reusing trusses from the 1880s. Largest span, 225 feet and total length, 1,355 feet.
  • Purpose of Rehabilitation: Rehab and conversion of vehicular bridge for pedestrian use.
  • Year of Rehabilitation: 2010
  • Cost of Rehabilitation: $3,200,000
  • Design Firm: Sparks Engineering
  • Contractor: Jay Reese Contractors
  • Details: Significant for its 1880s metal truss spans, the long concrete approach spans for this bridge were deteriorated and obstructive due to their clearances, and so were replaced. The historic truss spans were repaired as needed and included the use of hot metal riveting, meaning that any rivets replaced were replaced with rivets and not bolts. Non-destructive testing was used to evaluate the trusses prior to restoration.
  • View Bridge Documentation (External Link)

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Johns Burnt Mill Bridge

  • Location: Adams County, Pennsylvania
  • Type: Three span stone arch, 139 foot and 15, 18, and 15 foot spans totaling 61 feet, built 1820.
  • Purpose of Rehabilitation: Continued vehicular use in original location.
  • Year of Rehabilitation: 2006
  • Cost of Rehabilitation: $840,000 ($984,554 in 2014 Adjusted For Inflation)
  • Design Firm: Pennoni Associates, Inc
  • Details: Rehabilitation of this bridge was strongly supported by local residents, and found to be cost-effective following a rehabilitation study. The rehabilitation was extensive, and required temporary arch centering to be installed, while the fill was removed and precast concrete backing blocks were added. Masonry on the bridge was repointed. ADT at time of rehab was 600, and it was found that the one-lane bridge was sufficient for these traffic volumes.
  • View Detailed Report By SRI Foundation for AASHTO
  • View Bridge Documentation (External Link)

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KY-490 Rockcastle River Bridge

  • Location: Rockcastle and Laurel County, Kentucky
  • Type: One span rivet-connected Pennsylvania through truss, 205 feet long, built 1921.
  • Purpose of Rehabilitation: Continued vehicular use in original location.
  • Year of Rehabilitation: 2011
  • Cost of Rehabilitation: $465,000
  • Design Firm: None, In-House Design By KYTC
  • Contractor: Spartan Contractors
  • Details: Estimated replacement costs in 2006 were greater than $1,800,000. Vertical member section loss had reduced weight limit to three tons. Verticals repaired by bolting plate to the verticals. Other misc. structural repairs were made, and the bridge was repainted. Weight limit increased to 15 tons. Project provided a 75% savings over replacement. Bridge closure was limited to five days, and two months with a one lane restriction.
  • View Bridge Documentation (External Link)

Rockcastle

Lone Wolf Bridge

  • Location: Tom Green County, West Texas
  • Type: One span (152 feet) rivet-connected Pratt through truss with concrete approach spans, 586 feet overall length, built 1921.
  • Purpose of Rehabilitation: Conversion of vehicular truss bridge for pedestrian use in original location.
  • Year of Rehabilitation: 2010
  • Cost of Rehabilitation: Between $758,781 and $774,450
  • Design Firm: None, In-House Design By TxDOT
  • Details: Replacement of outer concrete girder. Removed 1930s sidewalk that had been added to the bridge, and the handrail was salvaged and reused. Bridge was repainted.
  • View Detailed Report By SRI Foundation For AASHTO
  • View Bridge Documentation (External Link)

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Maple Road “Foster” Bridge

  • Location: Washtenaw County, Michigan
  • Type: 150 foot single span, pin-connected Pratt Through Truss, built ca. 1880
  • Purpose of Rehabilitation: Continued vehicular use in original location.
  • Year of Rehabilitation: 2003
  • Cost of Rehabilitation: $520,000 ($658,673.26 in 2014 Adjusted For Inflation)
  • Design Firm: Lichtenstein Consulting Engineers (Today Owned By Transystems)
  • Details: Brought posted weight limit up from 6 tons to 20 tons. Diagonal members are post-tensioned with cables. Estimates to demolish and replace the bridge were much higher than the cost of rehabilitation and ranged from from $1,000,000 up to $4,000,000.
  • View A Brochure From The County About This Rehabilitation
  • View Bridge Documentation (External Link)

maplefoster

Old Penfield Road Bridge

  • Location: Monroe County, New York
  • Type: One span rivet-connected Warren pony truss, 75 foot length, built 1900.
  • Purpose of Rehabilitation: Continued vehicular use in original location.
  • Year of Rehabilitation: 2004
  • Design Firm: Stantec
  • Details: A compromise preservation project. The bridge was technically replaced with a modern two-lane bridge, however the historic truss lines were rehabilitated and placed on the replacement bridge as non-functional decorations. The truss lines themselves were largely unaltered.
  • View Bridge Documentation (External Link)

Penfield Bridge

Oregon City Bridge

  • Location: Clackamas County, Oregon (Oregon City)
  • Type: Steel through arch bridge with gunite coating, 850 feet in length with 350 foot main span span, built 1922. Bridge also has concrete girder approach spans.
  • Purpose of Rehabilitation: Continued vehicular use in original location.
  • Year of Rehabilitation: 2010
  • Cost of Rehabilitation: $10,600,000
  • Design Firm: OBEC Consulting Engineers
  • Contractor: Wildish Standard Paving Contractors
  • Details: Scope of work included removing and replacing Gunite on bridge, repair steel and concrete members, install new joints, and new approach slab and overlay. A “stealth rail” was installed which provides a combination of replica appearance, with crash-tested strength for safety.
  • View Bridge Documentation (External Link)

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Pine Creek Bridge

  • Location: Lycoming County, Pennsylvania
  • Type: One span pin-connected Lenticular through truss, 290 foot span built 1889.
  • Purpose of Rehabilitation: Continued vehicular use in original location.
  • Year of Rehabilitation: 2008-2011
  • Cost of Rehabilitation: $5,270,068.75
  • Contractor: J. D. Eckman, Inc.
  • Details: Substantial portions of the original bridge material were replaced including but not limited to all endposts and the entire lower chord. For the most part these elements were replaced in-kind, however subtle alterations were made. For example, v-lacing under the upper chord was replaced with lattice. Missing portal cresting and finials were replicated as needed. Any rivets replaced on the bridge were replaced with bolts. The contractor fully dismantled the bridge for the rehab process. The bridge was re-erected by assembling two halves of the bridge on the shore, and then placing each half over the creek with a temporary pier in the middle of creek. The two trusses were then joined together with a final upper chord segment and pins were driven at the center. Then, the deck and hanger system was installed.
  • View Bridge Documentation (External Link)

Pine Creek Bridge

Phalen Park Bridge

  • Location: St. Paul, Minnesota
  • Type: 1910 concrete open-spandrel arch bridge converted to stone-faced concrete arch in 1934, 55 foot arch span, total length 124 feet.
  • Purpose of Rehabilitation: Rehabilitation for pedestrian use.
  • Year of Rehabilitation: 2010-2011
  • Cost of Rehabilitation: $1,300,000
  • Design Firm: Olson & Nesvold Engineers
  • Contractor: Global Specialty Contractors
  • Details: A heavy rehabilitation of a bridge with a history of alteration. A pre-cast concrete panel liner system was added to the the barrel of the arch. The stone facing and railings were replaced with a single source that best matched the 1934 stone. The deck had a waterproof cap added. Sidewalks were removed from this former vehicular bridge. The railing design was replicated, but the original opening was too large, so the inner stones pinch in to reduce opening side, while maintaining the original size and appearance on the exterior stones. This rehabilitation could have also chosen to restore the bridge to its 1910 appearance as an open spandrel arch, but the Friends of Lake Phalen preferred the 1934 appearance.
  • View Bridge Documentation (External Link)

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Providence Road and Wildcat Road Bridges

  • Location: Robertson County, Texas
  • Type: Providence Road: Pin-connected Pratt through truss, 150 foot span, total length 173 feet. Wildcat Road:  Pin-connected Pratt through truss, 150 foot span, total length 322 feet.
  • Purpose of Rehabilitation: Continued vehicular use in original locations.
  • Year of Rehabilitation: 2013
  • Cost of Rehabilitation: Combined construction cost for both bridges: $2,020,498.28
  • Design Firm: None, In-House Design By TxDOT
  • Contractor: DCI Contracting, a division of Davis Construction, with truss restoration subcontracted to Bach Steel.
  • Details: Two bridges in two locations were rehabilitated as part of the same contract, which may have reduced the cost of the projects due to reduced mobilization. The repairs that were needed for both bridges were similar in nature. Repairs were made to the truss in place, with the help of temporary shoring. The bridge shoes and base of the end posts were largely replaced with replicas. The bridges were cleaned and repainted, and received new timber (glulam panels) decks. The top chord splice plate for the bridges were repaired. The splice plate for the Providence Road Bridge, presumably relocated to its currently location many decades ago, had apparantly been improperly bolted at that time since the plate did not line up right and one plate only had two bolts in it instead of six. This was corrected during rehab. Additional truss repairs were made including selected bottom chord sections, portal bracing, etc. Replacement of original bridge parts was minimal and heat straightening was used to repair some portions of the trusses. Hot metal riveting was used to replace in-kind any rivets that required replacement.
  • View Providence Bridge Documentation (External Link)
  • View Wildcat Bridge Documentation (External Link)

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Raven Rock Bridge

  • Location: Huntedon County, New Jersey
  • Type: One span pin-connected Pratt through truss with Phoenix columns, 127.5 foot span, built 1878.
  • Purpose of Rehabilitation: Continued vehicular use in original location.
  • Year of Rehabilitation: 2014
  • Cost of Rehabilitation: $2,186,926.00 approved by the federal government. Estimated $3,200,000 project cost.
  • Design Firm: Transystems
  • Details: This comprehensive rehabilitation has several specific items that are of note. Welded knee braces that were not original to the bridge were removed. Original lattice railings were repaired and retained on the bridge, while steel two tube guiderail was added to protect the bridge from vehicular collisions. The two tube design maintains a low visual impact on the bridge and also has a narrow width so it does not reduce the roadway width significantly. Bearing stones on the abutments were replaced in kind. The truss was dismantled and restored in a shop setting. The top chord and end posts on this bridge were strengthened by the addition of round hollow structural structural sections within the columns. Because of the design of a Phoenix columns, these additions are completely hidden from view.
  • View Bridge Documentation (External Link)

Raven Rock Bridge

Robert A. Booth (Winchester) Bridge

  • Location: Douglas County, Oregon
  • Type: Concrete open spandrel deck arch, 7 spans with a total length of 887.7 feet, built 1924.
  • Purpose of Rehabilitation: Continued vehicular use in original location.
  • Year of Rehabilitation: 2007
  • Cost of Rehabilitation: $9,930,000
  • Design Firm: None, In-House Design By ODOT, Mats Halvardson In Charge of Design
  • Contractor: Hamilton Construction Company of Springfield, Oregon
  • Details: Oregon has a number of ornate arch bridges designed by Conde McCullough, and this is one. A number of these bridges have been rehabilitated in Oregon, and this is a good representative example of the type of rehab work Oregon has done on these bridges. This bridge was widened slightly (from two 9’8″ lanes to two 12″ lanes), but great care was made to replicate the original architectural details that were altered or removed to accommodate the widening process. This included replacement of railings. New railings replicate the shape of the original railings, however have slightly higher bases to make the overall railing taller. Original railing height was 36″ and new railing height is 42″. Also, small steel rods were placed inside the arched openings on the railing, allowing the original arch design to be present, but closing the gap in the railing to meet safety codes.
  • View Detailed Report By SRI Foundation For AASHTO
  • View Bridge Documentation (External Link)

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